当身 Atemi – I wrote this to present for my 5th Dan grading for Atemi points. Its not perfect, but an insight in to how to strike, kick, grab, hold, twist etc to vulnerable parts of the body.  AW Nov 2017

HairGrabbing -Pulling can cause excruciating pain, twisting affects the nerves and is painful, because the hair is sensitive this can cause watering of the eyes, blurred vision. Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.

EarsCupping-The ear is the organ for hearing, Cupping the ears can cause temporary hearing loss with a mild blow, heavy force could result in permanent loss of hearing and could rupture the eardrum.

Nose-Striking can cause fracturing and heavy bleeding, also swelling of the eyes, possible facial nerves been effecting and brain trauma & possible unconsciousness. The nose has an area of specialised cells which are responsible for smelling (part of the olfactory system).

Maxilla-Heavy strikes can cause damage to the nasal & Septum, watering of the eyes will occur, superficial skin may be broken & heavy haemorrhaging, possible loss of teeth. The maxilla upper jawbone is formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones.

Mandible-Heavy strikes can cause instant unconsciousness due to the sensory nerves are sent direct to the brain, possible fracture from a heavy blow could occur. The mandible is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the face.

Clavicle–  heavy strike could fracture this bone which assist the arm movement, the assailant will find it difficult to use the effected arm due to severe pain, possible internal bleeding and nerve damage due to bone splitters. The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.

Neck– striking the Carotid can result in instant unconsciousness. The internal carotid artery supplies blood to the brain. The external carotid artery supplies blood to the face and neck. The neck includes part of the oesophagus, the larynxtrachea, and thyroid gland, major blood vessels including the carotid arteries and jugular veins, and the first part of the spinal cord.

Trachea– Heavy strikes to the trachea will cause loss of breath & possible fracture of the Hyoid bone which is an anchoring for the tongue and could result in unconsciousness. The windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs.

Wrist & Hand- Varying degree of strikes to the back of the hand can cause intense pain, possible fracture to the metacarpal’s, sending sensory nerves signals back to the brain which could shock, loss or difficulty in breathing. Striking the back of the hand could release a weapon.   The ulnar & median nerves run the major nerves in the arm.

Elbows-Over extension or hyper extension will cause dislocation and immobilise from further use due to intense pain.

Ribs– Heavy strikes just below the left nipple can cause a shock to the heart disrupting the heart rhythm. A strike to the right can affect the lungs trigging loss of breath & possible unconsciousness. Heavy strikes to the true ribs can break and splinter fragments puncture the lungs. Crushing or pressure will cause difficulty in breathing and the assailant to panic and could stop the fight.

Diaphragm– Kick or a heavy strike to this area will cause loss of breath, unconsciousness & possibility of rupturing internal organs.

Bladder– A severe strike to the balder can affect the small intestines & surrounding blood vessels & nerves, and if ruptured can cause urine to enter the body and lead to toxic shock.

Quadriceps– a heavy kick or elbow to the can result in extreme sensory nerve pain and loss of motor function.

Knee joint-Anterior (front) hyperextending the knee joint backwards will tear and rupture the posterior knee ligaments. Lateral (Outside) will rupture the medial collateral knee ligament. Medial (inside) will rupture the lateral collateral ligaments (LCL) which runs along the outside of the knee joint. The knee joint is also known as tibiofemoral.

Shin– The shin has little muscle covering the tibia (Shin bone), And is the most common broken bone in the body. A straight kick to the shin can break the Tibia and may be the fibula bone. Sharp fragments may cut or tear adjacent muscles, nerves, or blood vessels.

Dorsal of the foot– Stamping on the dorsal of the foot, Metatarsal will cause extreme pain, a severe stamp could break the bones damaging blood vessel & nerves leaving the assailant having difficulty in walking.

Extremities (outer Arm)-Hyperextension of the elbow joint can be easily break with around 32lbs of pressure. The result of a serve hyperextension of the joint will end the fight.

A heavy strike to the bicep & triceps muscle will cause trauma to the ulna and median sensory nerve, and will affect moto nerves rendering immobility in the whole arm.

Posterior (the Back)- Striking between the scapula could cause severe shock to the lungs and spinal column. They will lose breath and possibly movement and possible permanent partial paralysis.

Striking in the centre of the spine could paralyse if the vertebral joints are fractured.

Possible trauma to the spinal cord, lungs and aorta resulting in loss of breath and temporarily paralysed.

A strike to the lower lumber of spine cause trauma to the kidneys and surrounding blood vessels and sensory nerves. They may be paralysed for a short time also, possible fracture with hard force in the relative area could present them being permanently paralysed from the fracture downwards.

Coccyx– Trauma and heavy forced impact to this area can result in the whole spinal column affecting the central nervous system and possibly cause brain trauma.

Gluteus Muscles (buttocks) – Heavy impact around the gluteus muscles can have an intense affect to the sciatic nerves, and can affect the abdomen, hip, and cause loss of motor nerve function. There are three main muscles which make up the Gluteus; gluteus maximusgluteus medius and gluteus minimus.


Shock is a life-threatening medical condition as a result of insufficient blood flow throughout the body. Shock often accompanies severe injury or illness. Medical shock is a medical emergency and can lead to other conditions such as lack of oxygen in the body’s tissues (hypoxia), heart attack (cardiac arrest) or organ damage. It requires immediate treatment as symptoms can worsen rapidly.

Medical shock is different than emotional or psychological shock that can occur following a traumatic or frightening emotional event.

Hypovolemic shock

Cardiogenic shock

Anaphylactic shock

Neurogenic shock

Symptoms of all types of shock include:

  • Rapid, shallow breathing
  • Cold, clammy skin
  • Rapid, weak pulse
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • Weakness


  • Skeletal muscleis the type of muscle that we can see and feel. When a body builder works out to increase muscle mass, skeletal muscle is what is being exercised. Skeletal muscles attach to the skeleton and come in pairs — one muscle to move the bone in one direction and another to move it back the other way. These muscles usually contract voluntarily, meaning that you think about contracting them and your nervous system tells them to do so. They can do a short, single contraction (twitch) or a long, sustained contraction (tetanus).
  • Smooth muscleis found in your digestive system, blood vessels, bladder, airways and, in a female, the uterus. Smooth muscle have the ability to stretch and maintain tension for long periods of time. It contracts involuntarily, meaning that you do not have to think about contracting it because your nervous system controls it automatically. For example, your stomach and intestines do their muscular thing all day long, and, for the most part, you never know what’s going on in there.
  • Cardiac muscleis found only in your heart, and its big features are endurance and consistency. It can stretch in a limited way, like smooth muscle, and contract with the force of a skeletal muscle. It is a twitch muscle only and contracts involuntarily.

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